- When digging a trench a gas line hit can lead to an explosion?
- What are the different types of excavation?
- What is sloping and benching?
- How do you protect deep excavation?
- What are the steps of excavation?
- How do you find the slope of an excavation?
- How deep can you dig without shoring?
- What type of soil Cannot be benched?
- At what depth is an excavation considered a confined space?
- What is a deep excavation?
- When should a trench be benched?
- What tools are used in excavation?
- What is the difference between shoring and benching?
- What is benching in civil engineering?
- What are 3 main protection methods against cave ins?
When digging a trench a gas line hit can lead to an explosion?
– A gas line hit can lead to an explosion.
– A broken water line can fill a trench in seconds.
– Contact with buried power cables can kill.
Safety Tip: Always your local utility locating service such as 811 before you dig, and get the utilities marked..
What are the different types of excavation?
Excavation by MaterialTopsoil Excavation. As the name suggests, this type of excavation involves the removal of the exposed or the topmost area of the earth’s surface. … Rock Excavation. … Muck Excavation. … Earth Excavation. … Cut and Fill Excavation. … Trench Excavation. … Basement Excavation. … Dredging.
What is sloping and benching?
This appendix contains specifications for sloping and benching when used as methods of protecting employees working in excavations from cave-ins. … Actual slope means the slope to which an excavation face is excavated. Distress means that the soil is in a condition where a cave-in is imminent or is likely to occur.
How do you protect deep excavation?
General Trenching and Excavation RulesKeep heavy equipment away from trench edges.Keep surcharge loads at least 2 feet (0.6 meters) from trench edges.Know where underground utilities are located.Test for low oxygen, hazardous fumes and toxic gases.Inspect trenches at the start of each shift.More items…
What are the steps of excavation?
The entire excavation process includes:setting out corner benchmarks.surveying ground and top levels.excavation to the approved depth.dressing the loose soil.making up to cut off level.the construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches.making boundaries of the building.More items…•
How do you find the slope of an excavation?
CALCULATING EXCAVATION SLOPES, SWELL FACTORS, & FILL MATERIAL. Example: This example shows an excavation with an average depth of 10′. A 1/2:1 slope means the excavation must be sloped 1/2 unit for each 1 unit of depth. For a 10′ depth the slope will extend within 5′ of the edge of the excavation.
How deep can you dig without shoring?
Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.
What type of soil Cannot be benched?
Examples include granular soils such as gravel, sand and loamy sand; submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping; and submerged rock that is not stable. Benching Type C soil is unacceptable and shall not be done.
At what depth is an excavation considered a confined space?
four feetIn general practice, all trench excavations over four feet in depth should be considered confined spaces until a competent person has ruled out all of the potential hazards associated with it.
What is a deep excavation?
Shallow excavations are defined as being anything less than 1.5 metres deep, which really is not very deep at all; a relatively short person could comfortably see over the top. Deep excavations, on the other hand, are defined as being any excavation which is more than 4.5 metres in depth – a considerable height indeed.
When should a trench be benched?
As a general rule, the bottom vertical height of the trench must not exceed 4 ft (1.2 m) for the first bench. Subsequent benches may be up to a maximum of 5 ft (1.5 m) vertical in Type A soil and 4 ft (1.2 m) in Type B soil to a total trench depth of 20 ft (6.0 m).
What tools are used in excavation?
What excavation equipment might be necessary for your project?Backhoe loader. These have an adjustable shovel in the front and a bucket in the back. … Bulldozer. You can think of this piece of machinery as the monster of the excavation industry. … Crawler loader. … Excavator. … Skid-steer loader. … Trencher.
What is the difference between shoring and benching?
Benching is not allowed in Type C soil. Shoring is the provision of a support system for trench faces used to prevent movement of soil, underground utilities, roadways, and foundations. Shoring or shielding is used when the location or depth of the cut makes sloping back to the maximum allowable slope impractical.
What is benching in civil engineering?
[′bench·iŋ] (civil engineering) Concrete laid on the side slopes of drainage channels where the slopes are interrupted by manholes, and so forth. Concrete laid on sloping sites as a safeguard against sliding.
What are 3 main protection methods against cave ins?
To prevent cave-ins:SLOPE or bench trench walls.SHORE trench walls with supports, or.SHIELD trench walls with trench boxes.